Different Methods Of Conducting Research

As social scientists, we study the world, look for problems or interesting patterns, and set out to understand them. Researchers design a study based on research methods – perhaps rigorous scientific research methods, or ethnographic research that relies on interpretive frameworks. An important part of any sociological study is designing the study.

Primary research: what is it?

In the primary research, data is gathered directly from the source. Research is conducted by the researcher himself or by someone who collects data for them. It is more important to go straight to the source of information than to rely on preexisting samples.

In particular, this type of research is relevant when data collection needs to be contextualized. One way a company might discover its brand perceptions is to conduct primary market research. Since this information is unique to the business, it is not available from existing data sources.

It is also useful to conduct initial research to position a company or individual as an authority in their field. As the original researcher’s research is cited by other authors as the source, their position is further strengthened. However, as data owners, researchers retain full control over data.

Conducting primary research does not require you to be an expert. Market researchers who are gauging reactions to a new product can do this as well as students working on research projects for their universities.

Research Types Used In Primary Research

It is possible to gather primary research in many different ways. Based on the question or problem you’re trying to answer, you’ll need to select the most appropriate method. Interviews, surveys, focus groups and observations are the most common methods of primary market research.


Interviews are either conducted in small groups or one-on-one and can take place either over the phone or face-to-face. An interview is best suited for situations when a large amount of information from a small number of subjects needs to be collected. Interviews are often conducted to obtain information from experts regarding a specific subject. The nature of this type of research makes it ideal for following up with specific questions to ensure clarity.


An online survey is most frequently conducted to gain a response from a larger population and is a convenient and cost-effective solution. Respondents have little flexibility if their answers don’t fit pre-written questions (making skip logic and other features imperative) and they may show a variance in response rates. A survey’s length must be considered carefully: too long surveys may bore participants and lead them to abandon the survey. A short survey will, however, not collect enough data to give a comprehensive picture.

Concentration groups

Small groups of people, often subject matter experts in the area of research, are used to collect data through focus groups. In order to discover the thoughts of the members, the group discusses. Often, businesses use this technique to understand niche markets and customer preferences.

The Observations

By simply keeping notes and observing an event impartially, observers can conduct impartial observations. Using this method, the researcher doesn’t interact directly with the subject. Due to the fact that all reactions observed are genuine, this method is intended to remove bias from interviews and surveys. A camera or an observer trained to observe can be used for observations. Children’s toys are commonly tested by toy manufacturers using this method.

Aspects of primary research that are advantageous and disadvantageous

The primary research approach has many advantages, yet it may not be appropriate in all situations. Prior to selecting the most appropriate research method for the situation, it is essential to consider the individual requirements.

Benefits of primary research

Market research is best conducted using primary research methods. Keeping the research relevant to the project objectives and scope, it allows specific issues to be addressed. Therefore, research is located at the individual level rather than at the mass level.

Marketers can also choose the representative sample size and selection process for this type of research, as well as the methodology used and the methodology that will be used. Further improving the relevance of the research to the individual or organization is a result of this.

Researchers often rely on outdated secondary research that isn’t accurate for the market they’re targeting. A primary research study ensures the data is up-to-date and relevant, giving rise to revealing accurate trends.

In addition, primary studies allow an individual or organization to control ownership of data. You may decide to release the information to establish yourself as an authority, or you may decide to keep the information private in order to avoid giving your competitors an edge.

Primary research has some disadvantages

Performing primary research has the major disadvantage of being extremely costly. Primary research is often more expensive to collect, whereas secondary research is often free.

Primarily for research experiments, large sample size can also be complex to conduct. Performing primary research effectively, conducting it, and analyzing the results takes much more time than conducting the secondary research.

It is also necessary to account for the inaccuracy. A respondent may not fully understand a survey question or be biased due to their prior experience with the organization, which results in inaccurate or misleading responses.

Conducting primary research using surveys

Samples from big groups of people can be collected efficiently and cost-effectively through surveys. It consists of an array of straightforward questions, usually multiple choice. By collecting and analyzing quantitative data, the researcher is able to reach their conclusions.

A supplemental open-ended question can also be included with multiple-choice questions for further context and more detailed analysis.

In summary, primary research is beneficial for individuals and organizations who are seeking original data in order to answer a specific question or meet a specific need. In many instances, the benefits of using primary data outweigh the costs of using secondary data.

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